Although the infection with Cytomegalovirus Disease is an infrequent disease with immune competent individuals, it is a chief cause of mortality and morbidity in persons infected with HIV. Cytomegalovirus Disease can take place in many organ systems of the human body. It includes the gastrointestinal tract (GI), the central nervous system, life-threatening pneumonitis and adrenalitis.
Cytomegalovirus Disease is a member of herpes family of viruses. CMV infection is high with sexually active adults. It is spread through sexual or further kind of close, personal contact like organ transplant, blood to blood contact, and perinatal transmission. Like other members of herpes family, Cytomegalovirus infection is not cleaned from the body. It remains inactive or dormant throughout the life time.
However, through an active immune system, it could be kept in a latency state. Symptomatic Cytomegalovirus Disease signifies either normal infection or re-activation of infection. The risk of Cytomegalovirus Disease infection and its reactivation is greatly reduced by Effective Antiretroviral Therapy also known as ‘ART’.
Immune inflammatory syndrome reconstitution:
Though effective Antiretroviral Therapy greatly successful in reducing the risk of Cytomegalovirus Disease and its reactivation, patients after effective Antiretroviral Therapy may experience visual changes related to Cytomegalovirus. Patients with no previous record of Cytomegalovirus Disease will rarely present with blown Cytomegalovirus retinitis following ART. This is believed to reflect late restoration of specific-Cytomegalovirus immunity. It is treated and diagnosed in an identical manner.
Around 20 percent of people with previously treated Cytomegalovirus retinitis may experience immune reconstruction uveitis after getting successful ART. Symptoms consist of moderate and floaters, occasionally harsh, vision loss. Posterior disease is the most common cause of vision loss.
Cytomegalovirus Disease can isolate from urine, saliva, semen, cervical secretions, blood, and other tissues. However, the isolated virus is most in use when pooled with pathologic findings, together with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions that are similar to owl’s eyes: culture itself is of little use in diagnosis of HIV-related Cytomegalovirus infections. Retinitis with patients suffering from HIV is diagnosed in a clinical way.
There are two antiviral agents with efficiency against Cytomegalovirus Disease. They are Foscarnet and Ganciclovir. They are used as a dosage given by the recommended doctor or physician for the prevention of Cytomegalovirus infection. The introduction phase is vital for HIV related patients with Cytomegalovirus Disease including significant parts of the retina.
Maintenance therapy can be applied to less critical areas. Both agents are helpful in preventing the progress of retinitis. Ganciclovir is used in Cytomegalovirus colitis. This treatment generally is life-long in the AIDS patient. There are some complications in use of these antiviral agents. The basic one with Ganciclovir is neutropenia, and the one with Foscarnet is renal impairment.
Healthy people, if infected by Cytomegalovirus Disease generally do not require medications. There is no licensed drug to treat innate Cytomegalovirus infection. There is limited information on the proper use of antiviral medical drugs. Pediatricians play a significant role in making assure that kids with Cytomegalovirus infections are treated and assessed as desired. Proper consult with a known doctor is necessary.