Congenital CMV is a condition where Cytomegalovirus infection is spread in the prenatal period. Congenital Cytomegalovirus infection takes place when the mother do suffers from reactivation or primary infection, at the time of pregnancy. Because of the lower sero-prevalence of Human CMV in higher socioeconomic groups and industrialized countries, congenial CMV infections are more widespread in poorer countries.
In industrialized nations around 8 percent of CMV seronegative mothers suffer primary CMV infection at the time of pregnancy, of which 50 percent will transfer the infection to the fetus. Around 20-37 percent of fetuses infected by the CMV are born with the signs and symptoms. It may include gastrointestinal, neurological, pneumonia, and retinal diseases.
Pregnant women with the healthy body are not at much risk for CMV disease. When infected with Cytomegalovirus, majority of women have no signs or symptoms. Their growing fetuses would be in a risk for infection of Congenital CMV. Cytomegalovirus holds the most significant cause of congenial infection in some developed countries.
For newborns that are infected with Congenital Cytomegalovirus by their mothers by birth, two adverse scenarios exist:
- In an infant, the infection may occur and can cause problems such as seizures, low birth weight, seizures and moderate hepatosplenomegaly. Though harsh cases can be critical. With the aid of supportive treatment, majority of infants infected with CMV survive. Though, almost 80 percent of the infants have problems within the starting few years that include vision impairment, hearing loss and other mental retardation. Other infants infected without symptoms also have different mental and hearing or coordination problems.
- The women infected with CMV the first time at time of pregnancy have different type of risk involved. There shows a little risk of complications related with Congenital Cytomegalovirus for the recently infected mother. This group, which consists of 50 percent to 80 percent of the women of age of child-bearing, infection of CMV, is just one percent. Moreover, these newborns seem to have no major abnormalities or illness.
Congenital CMV can also be transferred to the newborn at the time of delivery from touch with genital discharge or later through milk from the breast. Though, they normally result in a minute or no major illness to the newborn. Overall, in case of a newly infected mother, there is a risk of CMV infection to the infant. They may have certain complications like visual impairment, hearing loss, or diminished motor or mental capabilities. Conversely, children and infants obtain Cytomegalovirus infection after birth has few minute complications or symptoms.
References for pregnant woman relating to infection of Congenital CMV
- All the way through pregnancy practice good individual hygiene. Chiefly hand-washing with water and soap.
- Women developing a mononucleosis type of illness in the duration of pregnancy must be checked for infection of CMV. They must have proper counseling regarding the probable risks to the infant.
- Test in laboratory for CMV antibody can be done to know whether a woman has past infection of CMV or not.
- Regular consultancy from a known doctor must be done regularly.